Moisture[ edit ] Moisture is an important property of coal, as all coals are mined wet. The abrasion index is determined by measuring the loss of mass of the four metal blades. Each type of coal has a certain set of physical parameters which are mostly controlled by moisture, volatile content in terms of aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbons and carbon content.
Ash fusion temperatures are determined by viewing a moulded specimen of the coal ash through an observation window in a high-temperature furnace.
The cross sectional profile of this coke button compared to a set of standardised profiles determines the Coal analysis Swelling Index. Groundwater and other extraneous moisture is known as adventitious moisture and is readily evaporated. Abrasion testing[ edit ] Abrasion is the property of the coal which describes its propensity and ability to wear away machinery and undergo autonomous grinding.
The volatile matter of coal is determined under rigidly controlled standards. Crucible swelling index free swelling index [ edit ] The simplest test to evaluate whether a coal is suitable for production Coal analysis coke is the free swelling index test.
SGS uses the results from ultimate analysis tests to determine the elemental Coal analysis Coal analysis the coal including moisture, ash, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen by difference. Coal is usually washed by passing it over a bath of liquid of known density.
This is reached when the entire mould takes on a hemisphere shape Flow fluid temperature: Proximate and ultimate analyses done in our state-of-the-art laboratories deliver timely, accurate and independent results from your coal, coke and biofuel samples.
The density of the coal seam is necessary for conversion of resources into reserves. Particle size distribution[ edit ] The particle size distribution of milled coal depends partly on the rank of the coal, which determines its brittleness, and on the handling, crushing and milling it has undergone.
This differs from the ultimate carbon content of the coal because some carbon is lost in hydrocarbons with the volatiles. This is reached when the molten ash collapses to a flattened button on the furnace floor. To determine in-place coal tonnages however, it is important to preserve the void space when measuring the specific gravity.
It is necessary to know these data before coal is mined, so that suitable crushing machinery can be designed to optimise the particle size for transport and use.
Physical and mechanical properties[ edit ] Relative density[ edit ] Relative density or specific gravity of the coal depends on the rank of the coal and degree of mineral impurity. Fixed carbon is determined by removing the mass of volatiles determined by the volatility test, above, from the original mass of the coal sample.
This is reached when the corners of the mould first become rounded Softening sphere temperature: Float-Sink testing is achieved on crushed and pulverised coal in a process similar to metallurgical testing on metallic ore.
Moisture held within the coal itself is known as inherent moisture and is analysed quantitatively. We determine each element through chemical analysis and express it as a percentage of the total mass Coal analysis the original coal or coke sample. Volatile matter also evaluate the adsorption application of an activated carbon.
After heating for a specified time, or until all volatiles are driven off, a small coke button remains in the crucible. Analysis is fairly straightforward, with the coal thoroughly burnt and the ash material expressed as a percentage of the original weight.
SGS is a global leader in chemical analysis for the coal and coke industries. Ash[ edit ] Ash content of coal is the non-combustible residue left after coal is burnt. This is usually a mixture of short- and long-chain hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and some sulfur.
This is reached when the top of the mould takes on a spherical shape. This removes high-ash value particle and increases the saleability of the coal as well as its energy content per unit volume. Volatile matter is a key health and safety concern as coals high in volatiles have an increased risk of spontaneous combustion.
Generally coal is utilised in furnaces and coking ovens at a certain size, so the crushability of the coal must be determined and its behaviour quantified. Moisture may occur in four possible forms within coal: Volatile matter[ edit ] Volatile matter in coal refers to the components of coal, except for moisture, which are liberated at high temperature in the absence of air.
Volatiles and carbon are on a dry mineral free base; heating value is based on the moisture content as mined, but without any free water.
Proximate analysis tests conducted in SGS laboratories, along with applicable standards, include: Inherent moisture is analysed similarly, though it may be done in a vacuum. Coal classification by rank[ edit ] See also: ASH SGS conducts a variety of fundamental ash analysis tests including ash elemental tests, ash fusion tests and coal ash analysis.
While carbonaceous matter in coal is relatively soft, quartz and other mineral constituents in coal are quite abrasive. SGS experts conduct a fixed carbon test to estimate of the amount of coke your coal sample will yield.
SGS has the facilities and the know-how to provide you with timely accurate results.IEA Clean Coal Centre – Coal sampling and analysis standards 4 Abstract Each year, billions of tonnes of.
Standard Laboratories, Inc.
has the facilities to provide a wide variety of coal sampling and testing, as well as other support services for the coal mining and processing industries. We have facilities and partner companies throughout the United States to assist projects in any region of the country.
Coal analysis techniques are specific analytical methods designed to measure the particular physical and chemical properties of coals. These methods are used primarily to determine the suitability of coal for coking, power generation or for iron ore smelting in the manufacture of steel.
Some markets require specific quality characteristics for the process in which the coal is used, and environmental regulations also require knowledge of a coal’s quality.
Some products also require analysis of physical characteristics. The analysis of energy materials and minerals at any point in the production and distribution chain must be done with the utmost attention to accuracy and best practice.
At SGS, we know that impartial, independent analysis is critical for the successful operation of the international coal trade.
Flowsheet of sample preparation and chemical analysis of coal_____ 7 3. Linear regression curves and correlation coefficients for depth (thickness) and fixed-carbon content of 12 bituminous coal samples (A) and depth (thickness) and carbon-hydrogen atomic ratios of 12 bituminous coal samples (B) _____Download